The Negative Effects Questionnaire (NEQ) has currently been evaluated in terms of its reliability and factor structure in articles published in the peer-reviewed journals PLoS One and Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy. Moreover, in accordance with idea of providing important and interesting research for free, the articles are available for everyone through so-called open access – just click on the title below to read it online or download to your computer, tablet, or smartphone.

  • Rozental, A., Kottorp, A., Forsström, D., Månsson, K., Boettcher, J., Andersson, G., Furmark, T., & Carlbring, P. (in press). The Negative Effects Questionnaire: Psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing adverse and unwanted events in psychological treatments. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy.

Additional references

For additional articles related to the research of negative effects of psychological treatments in general, and for Internet-based treatment interventions in particular, please consult some of the references below.

Rozental, A., Castonguay, L., Dimidjian, S., Lambert, M., Shafran, R., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2018). Negative effects in psychotherapy: Commentary and recommendations for future research and clinical practice. BJPsych Open, 4(4), 307-312. doi:10.1192/bjo.2018.42

Rozental, A., Magnusson, K., Boettcher, J., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2017). For better or worse: An individual patient data meta-analysis of deterioration among participants receiving Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(2), 160-177.

Ebert, D. D., Donkin, L., Andersson, G., Andrews, G., Berger, T., Carlbring, P., Rozental, A., Choi, I., Laferton, J. A. C., Johansson, R., Kleiboer, A., Lange, A., Lehr, D., Reins, J.A., Funk, B., Newby, J., Perini, S., Riper, H., Ruwaard, J., Sheeber, L., Snoek, F. J., Titov, N., Ünlü Ince, B., van Bastelaar, K., Vernmark, K., van Straten, A., Warmerdam, L., Salsman, N. and Cuijpers, P. (2016). Does Internet-based guided-self-help for depression cause harm? An individual participant data meta-analysis on deterioration rates and its moderators in randomized controlled trials. Psychological Medicine, 46(13), 2679-2693. doi:

Rozental, A., Boettcher, J., Andersson, G., Schmidt, B., & Carlbring, P. (2015). Negative effects of Internet interventions: A qualitative content analysis of patients’ experiences with treatments delivered online. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 44(3), 223-236. doi:

Bystedt, S., Rozental, A., Andersson, G., Boettcher, J., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Clinicians’ perspectives on negative effects of psychological treatments. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 43(4), 319-331. doi:

Rozental, A., Andersson, G., Boettcher, J., Ebert, D. D., Cuijpers, P., Knaevelsrud, C., Brjánn Ljótsson, B., Kaldo, V., Titov, N., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Consensus statement on defining and measuring negative effects of Internet interventions. Internet Interventions, 1(1), 12-19. doi:

Boettcher, J., Rozental, A., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Side effects in Internet-based Interventions for social anxiety disorder. Internet Interventions, 1(1), 3-11. doi: